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The number of secular, non-religious, agnostic and atheists is estimated at 1. Question: Which religions are missing in this list? Different religions and beliefs have long existed in the European region as well. In some historical periods, Europe has provided refuge to persecuted religious groups and allowed a diversity of religions and beliefs to flourish.

Social and Political Thought in Chinese Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

At other times, however, European countries have fallen prey to fanaticism and been engrossed in "religious wars", such as the Thirty Years War of that led to the slaughter of one-third of the continent's population. The misuse, or abuse, of religious arguments has led to the justification of painful conflicts and wars, persecutions and intolerance. Regardless of how we understand these historical legacies, a wide range of religions and beliefs exist in Europe and they have and continue to have an impact on our societies. In this way, religion and belief are important factors to consider in relation to young people and youth work because, directly or indirectly, they have an impact on young people's identity and sense of belonging.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article The UN Human Rights Committee emphasises that this freedom is "far-reaching and profound", that it "encompasses freedom of thought on all matters, personal conviction and the commitment to religion or belief, whether manifested individually or in community with others", that the freedom for conscience should be equal to that for religion and belief and that protection is for "theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief".

This freedom in international law was historically focused on the religious liberty of minority communities. Today, laws securing freedom of religion and belief are no longer focused on the need to maintain the status quo in order not to undermine regional security, but spotlight a number of concerns including non-discrimination, equality and dignity.

Championing this freedom has societal as well as individualist rationales, allowing people the scope to openly seek, vigorously discuss and freely uphold the beliefs that they choose, alone or along with others. Achieving an enabling environment for this freedom requires not only non-interference on the grounds of religion or belief by the state but positive measures to be taken to achieve and maintain such an environment in society at large. In practice, this should include, for example, the possibility to make available places of worship or to provide moral and religious education.

Question: Are you a member of any religious community? How did you get involved?

That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another. In a papyrus from Ancient Egypt. As with all other human rights, this freedom does not "trump" other freedoms and it sometimes finds itself in tension with other human rights, such as freedom of opinion and expression and freedom from discrimination on the grounds of sex or sexual orientation.

This is reflected for example in the way Article 9 of the European Convention on Human rights is structured: there is an absolute protection of the right to religious belief, conscience and thought, but the manifestations only enjoy a qualified protection in so far as they do not violate other human rights.

Atomic Power of Prayer (FULL, Fixed, Anointed) by Dr. Cindy Trimm! Spiritual Warfare

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Freedom of religion and belief — including freedom to change religion — is essential to all of us, in our search for meaning, our full development, our identity and our expression as members of a community or communities. Whether we have a firm religion or belief, whether we are undecided, or even if we do not really care much for religion or belief, this freedom matters to people and the societies they build. Are there any communities in your country that do not enjoy the same level of freedom of religion and belief as others?

Religious groups must tolerate, as other groups must, critical public statements and debate about their activities, teachings and beliefs, provided that such criticism does not amount to intentional and gratuitous insult and does not constitute incitement to disturb the public peace or to discriminate against adherents of a particular religion. Venice Commission of the Council of Europe. Throughout religious history, many religious and societal features have been embedded in the environment where a particular religion was practised, and they are reflected in culture and politics.

Many pieces of literature, poetry, art and music, dress codes and ways of organising life together have been drawn from religions. Religion has made a strong imprint on culture, which can be seen, for example, on holy days, at feasts, in marriage ceremonies, burial practices, pilgrimages, the wearing of religious symbols e. The influence of religions may become even stronger when nations adopt a state religion or religious ideology. In such situations, religion and religious arguments may become confused with the political, economic or social reasoning.

The extent to which freedom of thought, conscience and religion allow distinctive practices of a community of believers to diverge from those of the rest of the society is often debated within the human rights community. Examples of this include attitudes towards women in religious leadership positions, traditional ceremonies involving children, laws surrounding marriage, divorce or burial, prohibition on the depiction of divine beings or other religious figures, and so on.

Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not. In such contexts, the human rights bodies would criticise harmful practices, regardless of whether they were traditionally condoned by particular cultures, nations or religions. Such criticism is not an attack on culture, nationality or religion but an attempt to strike a balance between the right to one's religions and belief and other human rights, since several of these practices can result in serious human rights abuse. Harmful traditional practices include female genital mutilation, son-preference which can manifest itself in sex-selective abortion, failing to care for newborn girls, discrimination in education in favour of sons, discrimination in nutrition , arranged or forced marriages, marriage of children, dowry-related crimes and crimes justified by "honour", exclusion or limitation of some rights of non-adherents to a more powerful religious group in a given community, segregation according to religious lines, and so on.

Such practices disproportionately affect women and children: invoking tradition is used to justify discrimination on the basis of gender and age. Furthermore, in several cases, situations which, from a human rights perspective, are a violation of human dignity, remain unrecognised, taboo and unpunished. Few of these practices are based on religious precepts; the fact that they are deeply anchored in culture and tradition do not make ending them any easier.

Changes have to come through legislative change, education and empowerment. Throughout history, religions have played a crucial role in imposing limitations on human action in order to protect the physical and psychological integrity or dignity of other people. Yet, even though religious philosophies have contributed to the development of a conscience of human rights and dignity, the human rights related to religion and belief are no more exempt from the tensions and contradictions that are present in human rights instruments, than are other rights.

As seen in the case of harmful traditional practices, sometimes convictions or beliefs are used to justify outright physical harm with severe health consequences.

Religious intolerance can be observed at different levels: among adherents of the same religion intra-religious intolerance ; between one religion or religious attitude and another, manifesting itself in various forms of conflicts between persons and groups of persons inter-religious intolerance ; in the form of confrontational atheism or confrontational theism, which are intolerant of free choice and practice of other religions or belief commitments; or in the form of anti-secularism.

Religious intolerance is often confused with xenophobia and other forms of discrimination; sometimes it is also used to justify discrimination. Most human rights violations related to freedom of religion and belief are also related to freedom from discrimination. Discrimination on the grounds of religion and belief is contrary to human rights but it is nonetheless experienced daily by many people across Europe. The fact that religion and belief are often confused with culture, nationality and ethnicity makes it more complicated but also more painful on an individual level: you may be discriminated against on the grounds of religious affiliation even if you happen not to believe in the religion you are associated with.

Discrimination and intolerance impact negatively on society as a whole, and particularly on young people who experience it. Such effects include:. Religious intolerance is also used to feed hatred in, and to contribute to, armed conflicts, not so much because it is the cause of conflict but because religious belonging is used to draw dividing lines, as armed conflicts in the Balkans and Caucasus demonstrate. The consequences of international terrorism and the "wars on terrorism" have been particularly devastating in Europe and beyond, notably because religious intolerance becomes mixed with xenophobia and racism.

No single social group, religion or community has the monopoly of discrimination. Even though the levels of protection of the freedom of religion and belief vary significantly across the member states of the Council of Europe, religious intolerance and discrimination affects everyone in Europe. For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Saint Paul.

The Qin Dynasty and the beginning of China’s imperial despotism

Of particular concern in several European countries is the rise of Islamophobia, the fear and hatred of Islam, resulting in discrimination against Muslims or people associated with Islam. Sinologist Chad Hansen describes their difference as such: "Shen Buhai's shu "techniques" limit the ministers' influence on the ruler; Shang Yang's fa controls their power over the people.

The scholar Shen Dao — c. As the first of his accomplishments, historiographer Sima Qian accounts Gongsun as having divided the populace into groups of five and ten, instituting a system of mutual responsibility [] tying status entirely to service to the state.

  • Religion and belief.
  • Han Feizi - Wikipedia.
  • Religion and belief - Council of Europe?
  • The Qin Dynasty and the beginning of China’s imperial despotism.
  • Timeline | Story of China | PBS.

It rewarded office and rank for martial exploits, going to far as to organize women's militias for siege defense. The second accomplishment listed is forcing the populace to attend solely to agriculture or women cloth production, including a possible sewing draft and recruiting labour from other states.

He abolished the old fixed landholding system Fengjian and direct primogeniture, making it possible for the people to buy and sell usufruct farmland, thereby encouraging the peasants of other states to come to Qin. The recommendation that farmers be allowed to buy office with grain was apparently only implemented much later, the first clear-cut instance in BC.

Infanticide was prohibited. Gongsun deliberately produced equality of conditions amongst the ruled, a tight control of the economy, and encouraged total loyalty to the state, including censorship and reward for denunciation. Law was what the sovereign commanded, and this meant absolutism, but it was an absolutism of law as impartial and impersonal. Gongsun discouraged arbitrary tyranny or terror as destroying the law. Insisting that it be made known and applied equally to all, posting it on pillars erected in the new capital.

In , along with the creation of the new capital, a portion of Qin was divided into thirty-one counties, each "administered by a presumably centrally appointed magistrate. Gongsun considered the sovereign to be a culmination in historical evolution, representing the interests of state, subject and stability. The greatest good was order. History meant that feeling was now replaced by rational thought, and private considerations by public, accompanied by properties, prohibitions and restraints.

1. The Scope of the “Political”

In-order to have prohibitions, it is necessary to have executioners, hence officials, and a supreme ruler. Virtuous men are replaced by qualified officials, objectively measured by Fa. The ruler should rely neither on his nor his officials' deliberations, but on the clarification of Fa. Everything should be done by Fa, [] [] whose transparent system of standards will prevent any opportunities for corruption or abuse. While Shen Buhai and Shen Dao 's current may not have been hostile to Confucius, [] Shang Yang and Han Fei emphasize their rejection of past models as unverifiable if not useless "what was appropriate for the early kings is not appropriate for modern rulers".

Together with that of Xun Kuang , their sense of human progress and reason guided the Qin dynasty.

Social and Political Thought in Chinese Philosophy

Intending his Dao way of government to be both objective and publicly projectable, [] Han Fei argued that disastrous results would occur if the ruler acted on arbitrary, ad-hoc decision making, such as that based on relationships or morality which, as a product of reason, are "particular and fallible. Fa is not partial to the noble, does not exclude ministers, and does not discriminate against the common people.

Linking the "public" sphere with justice and objective standards, for Han Fei, the private and public had always opposed each other.