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Intersexuality, Transgender, and Transsexuality
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Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Vrabel, A. Retrieved from www. Rural Society, 25 2 , White, M. The material child: Coming of age in Japan and America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Zubair, S. Feminist Formations, 25 3 , E-mail: muhammad. E-mail: m. Related Papers. By Sana Nisar. By Shirin Zubair. A radical feministic study of Bapsi Sidhwa's the Crow Eaters. By M Tayyab Khan. ISSN August Both non-trans women and intersexuals may be likewise viewed as oppressed as a consequence of the nonconsensual nature of sex-assignment.
They, too, may wish to change this. While it is useful to find common cause, there is also a danger in collapsing different types of oppression and representing certain people as oppressed when they are not. And there are deeper worries. Cressida Heyes , — raises legitimate worries about a transgender politics, which proclaims all individual gender expression good.
She rightly observes that gender is not merely an aesthetic style or the expression of an isolated self. It is relational and embedded in systems of oppression.
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For example, forms of masculinity involve interacting with women in particular ways. Certain forms of masculinity involve misogyny. Such gender behavior is morally problematic.
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Just as there are concerns about the relational nature of gender expression, so there are concerns about the relational nature of gender identity. Is any gender identity valid?
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What we need is an account of trans oppression out of which the category woman can arise as a resistant option. What is needed, I believe, is a deeper account of the sort of resistance at work in trans identities. In doing so, I will also show that this form of oppression opens up clear possibilities for understanding the intersections of trans, intersex, and sexist oppressions. It is about how pervasive identity-invalidation contributes to HIV-prevalence among trans women cf. Bettcher a. Identity-invalidation is not the only social obstacle that trans people face, but it is an extremely expansive and important one Bettcher a.
By abandoning any monolithic account of trans oppression, it is possible to focus on the cross-institutional phenomenon of identity invalidation. It is not merely that a trans woman is called a man. This appearance-reality contrast is manifested in two ways, both to the detriment of trans identity. Such practices are clearly abusive. But even in the absence of physical abuse, certain discursive practices deploy euphemism to invalidate trans identity.